Bosnian Independence…. for half of us?

For the half of us living in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, we’re celebrating the 20th anniversary of Bosnia’s split from Yugoslavia.  If you’re in another part of the country then it’s a different story.  Kind of crazy that half of the country claims we’re independent today and the other half says it was back in January.  ‘Tis why Bosnia is so complex, interesting, and frustrating all in the same day.  Here’s what we [ghost writer, Julia Dowling, thank you very much] think at the Center for Peacebuilding:

What Bosnian Independence Means to Me

Today, the 1st of March, half of Bosnia and Herzegovina is celebrating the 20th anniversary of the country’s independence.  For the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the majority Bosniak and Croat entity within the country, businesses are closed, transportation on a holiday schedule, and citizens recognize the day the country declared its split from Yugoslavia in 1992.

For the other half of Bosnia and Herzegovina however, the Serb-majority Republika Srpska, it is business as usual.  Independence day for Republika Srpska is instead held January 9th, when the Republic of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina was proclaimed in 1992.

In many ways, today symbolizes the deep divide the peoples of Bosnia face despite a decade and a half between the cessation of war and the present.  The federal government barely functions and, because of years of barriers to ethnic cooperation, our citizens are growing farther apart from one another instead of growing together for a promising future.

The Center for Peacebuilding is working on reestablishing communication and building trust within divided communities.  Last Thursday, we took the first step in planning our newest project Truth, Healing, and Reconciliation in Community with a roundtable discussion between local community members.  This project will create a safe space in which individuals of every ethnic identity can share their personal war story as others support and bear witness to a truth different than their own.  Our grassroots story-telling will begin to heal the wounds of war that everyone living in Bosnia carries.  As one round-table attendee noted, “we must build a house from the foundation stone up.”  Person by person and story by story, the project will provide the mortar that binds the bricks together, the reconciliation that people of Bosnia desperately need.

This may be one of CIM’s most challenging projects – it will be the first initiative of its kind in the Balkans – but the deep need for local reconciliation calls us to continue despite skepticism and criticism coming from all sides.  As our project develops, we’ll be sure to post news and updates.  Thank you for your continued support and being peacebuilders in your own hearts and communities.

In Peace,
Vahidin Omanovic, Co-Director
Center for Peacebuilding/Centar za Izgradnju Mira

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Bosnian Politics – Possibly Worse than American Politics?

I know, I know, it sounds impossible that anything could be worse than the absolute circus going on in Washington DC these days (you know I love you, DC, but get it together).  And sometimes I still think that there still is nothing worse than Congress and the schmucks running for the Republican nomination, especially with this birth control business.  But realistically we all know that there are many places far worse off than the US of A.  Bosnia is by no means in a position similar to Syria, Iran, Zimbabwe or other states in crisis.  But the crisis Bosnia had nearly 20 years ago continues to have major ramifications on life today.

Present Bosnian politics have essentially paralyzed the country and the political rhetoric is, many have claimed, not very different from that heard in the years and months leading up to the war in 1992.

Here's a map of pre-war Bosnia and post-war Bosnia.  You can see how ethnic groups have moved to stay within their own entity's borders.

Here's a map of pre-war Bosnia and post-war Bosnia. You can see how ethnic groups have moved to stay within their own entity's borders.

Here’s a quick primer on the post-war political history in Bosnia, which has contributed to the current state of political immobility: In the fall of 1995, the major warring parties in Bosnia (the Bosnian Serbs and Serbians, the Bosnian Muslims, and the Bosnian Croats and Croatians) were brought together by Richard Holbrooke in Dayton, Ohio for negotiations.  The result of the Dayton Accord was a divided Bosnia – two “entities” that would function completely separately except for the National Government which consisted of representatives from the 3 major ethnic groups.  Now Bosnia has the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Muslim and Croat entity) and the Republika Srpksa (the Serb entity).  The majority of Bosnia’s population now lives within the borders of their own ethnicity’s entity, meaning that Bosnia’s interethnic makeup during Yugoslavia has been transformed.  Before, villages with Serbs would sit next to Muslim towns, and vice versa.  Now most populated areas are majority Serb or majority Muslim or majority Croat (yes, there certainly are exceptions to this, but the overall tone of interethnic cooperation has been destroyed).

Ok, so what does that mean now?  It means that almost everything in political life comes down to ethnicity.  Whether or not Bosnia’s citizens want this, it is the reality.  Three of the four major political parties are ethnically based and consistently spew hateful rhetoric against the other parties.  The Muslim majority party, Party of Democratic Action (SDA), cannot ever agree with the Serb majority party (Serb Democratic Party – SDS), who rarely agrees with the Croat majority party, Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ).  To be clear, I don’t blame the parties for certain conflicts; recently the Serb Party in Parliament called to abolish the National Court (which charges war crimes transferred from the Hague) because they believe it would be better to try such cases in entity courts.  Certainly, a terrible and unjust idea for all ethnic groups involved – how can we expect justice for victims and perpetrators if they are on trial in areas where they are often the hated minority?

But it goes without saying that the Federal Bosnian Government simply does not work.  The three ethnic majority parties plus one heavyweight multi-ethnic party (the SDP) have created a stalemate on nearly all national matters.  I mean, they were unable to form an official government (one with Ministers of Defense, Foreign Affairs etc…) for FOURTEEN MONTHS.  That’s right.  Bosnia and Herzegovina operated without a fully-formed government for fourteen months before a breakthrough this December.

So critical national affairs are consistently stalled in Sarajevo, but does Bosnia’s politics affect people’s everyday life?  You bet.  

You better join a political party, and if it’s not the right party for your area, then you’re plum out of luck for things like work, housing, and other advantages that come with Bosnian nepotism and corruption.  My friends from all over Bosnia face problems because of politics:

A good friend of mine, X, doesn’t agree with ethnic politics, even though X lives in a town where their own ethnic majority is in power .  X is instead, a party member of the multi-ethnic SDP party.  Guess what?  Even though X is a kind, compassionate, and brilliant person who speaks multiple languages, X simply can’t find a job in town.  Sorry, you lose because you envision a multi-ethnic future for Bosnia!  X has a partner, V, who also faces issues – V is not a member of any political party and because of this, has been blackmailed at work, and has not been offered a long-term contract at their job…. every three months when the contract period is up there is the chance that V will be terminated unless V caves and joins the local ruling political party.*

So people who should be celebrated because they refuse to play into ethnic biases and a political system corrupt from top to bottom are instead left out of the whole process.  What does this mean for Bosnia’s future?  Where are the moderate, tolerant voices?  I honestly don’t know what the future holds for this beautiful country and its incredible residents, but the opportunities denied my friends make me incredibly angry and sad.  Political rhetoric is getting worse, and if the economy and employment situation doesn’t improve I don’t see a very peaceful future.  Uncertainty makes people afraid, and that can cause them to turn to those who act like they hold the answers – the answers in today’s Bosnia are all ethnic.  I don’t have any real insight or suggestions for fixing this, except that education in conflict resolution and tolerance must be taught on the grassroots level.  Let’s rebuild relationships so that people can say “you know, I have a Serb friend that is a really great person – maybe those politicians are wrong about all Serbs being evil….”  It can only start there.

*To ensure anonymity I have replaced names with letters.  In the current Bosnian political climate,  it very important to give as few details as possible lest someone happen upon this entry and my words cause even more problems for my friends.

Kozara National Park

Today, our CIM team decided to take advantage of the snow and low temperatures and travel a bit from Sanski Most into Kozara National Park.

Skis! Before we found out there were no ski boots...

The park, with small mountain peaks and lush evergreen forrests, was only about 40 minutes west of Sanski Most.  Here, Mevludin (one of CIM’s Co-Directors) said we could rent skis and snowboards and other equipment to take part in the fun.  Surprise of surprises though, they claimed they were out of ski boots!  At first we suspected that their response had only been to spite me (a foreigner, and an American one to add insult to injury!) but when one of the Bosnians went afterwards we found out this was the sad truth.

No worries though, because us peacebuilding hippies know how to be creative, resourceful, and fun….  We took our two sleds and a whole mess of plastic bags and used them to jet down the ski slope with alarming speed and absolutely no control over our course.  I was skeptical about the efficacy of plastic bags – my french friend Maxime handed me a yellow trash bag and all I could say was “I don’t know if this will work, Maxime.”  I got on and pushed a bit downhill and – it worked.  It worked REAL GOOD, if I can be colloquial about it.  All I can say is I started yelling “To radi!!!” (it works!) as Bosnian children trying to learn to ski lept out of my path.

It was a fun day with the group.  Kozara is stunning, especially in the snow.  After some hot drinks we walked a bit to see the monument Tito built to memorialize The Partisans who were killed in World War II.  It was a pretty imposing piece of work:

Partisan Monument

And what’s a Bosnian National Park without a tank?

Et, voila (can you see how living with a French roommate and working with three Frenchies is rubbing off on me?).  Bosnia’s natural beauty (and quirks that make you improvise and become more flexible the longer you are here) is why it was such a fabulous day.  Who could argue that this was not worth the trip?